Bears and Their Geographic Range
In North America there are 3 kinds of bears: black bears, grizzly bears (additionally referred to as brown bears in coastal areas of Alaska and Canada)  and polar bears. Polar bears are taken into consideration the maximum risky to people, with grizzlies being subsequent in line, observed with the aid of using black bears. The black endure has the biggest geographic variety. It may be discovered throughout Canada, Alaska, and the western and japanese U.S. with small patches of habitat withinside the primary and south-primary U.S. (see map). The grizzly endure may be discovered in Washington, Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Alaska, and western Canada. The polar endure, like its call indicates, will simplest be discovered withinside the maximum northern polar areas of Canada, Alaska, Russia, and all of Greenland.
The geographic stages of those 3 kinds of bears have a few overlap. Black bears and grizzly bears can each be discovered in Montana, Alaska, and western Canada. There are small regions of Alaska and Canada wherein all 3 kinds of bears may be discovered.
The white shadeation of polar bears lead them to clean to become aware of. However, a bit know-how is needed to inform a grizzly endure from a black endure. Being capin a position to inform the distinction is crucial in case you are in a place in which each kinds of endure live (see map).
The shadeation of the fur isn’t always constantly a hundred�fective for figuring out the endure species, as black bears aren’t constantly black. They also can have the equal darkish brown to brown-blonde fur as grizzlies.
On their backs among the the front shoulders, grizzly bears commonly have a hump of muscle (which black bears do now no longer have). Another distinguishing function is size. A grizzly endure is usually one and a 1/2 of to 2 instances larger than a black endure of the equal age and gender. 
If you’re looking at clean endure tracks, take note of the claw marks for figuring out the species. Black bears have shorter and extra curved claws than a grizzly. No remember what species you agree with made the tracks, continue with caution, as you understand a endure is in all likelihood withinside the region.
Avoiding a Bear Encounter
The one and simplest manner to assure you’ll keep away from a endure come across is to live out of regions in which bears live. For many humans that simply isn’t always an alternative due to the fact they love trekking, biking, hunting, tenting or simply being in nature. If you’re a geologist or environmental scientist, your process might also additionally require which you move into endure country. So, if you may be in which bears live, right here are a few matters that you could do to lessen the opportunity of encountering a endure.
Make your presence acknowledged whilst you’re trekking. Don’t be a stealth hiker. Hike in a group, the extra the merrier. Making noise together with speaking and making a song offers an early caution to bears that they’re now no longer alone.  This will permit them to stroll farfar from the noise to keep away from an come across.
Be in search of lively endure symptoms and symptoms together with clean tracks or clean endure scat. If viable, keep away from feeding regions together with berry patches and circulation banks in which bears can be feeding or drinking. Hiking in noon will lessen the risk of encountering a endure, as they’re much less lively at that time.
Food is the maximum in all likelihood offender for a endure coming into you campsite. The National Parks Conservation Association indicates double-bagging and striking your meals at the very least 14 toes above the floor and at the least four toes from the trunk of a tree.  If you do not have an area to dangle your meals, you could positioned it in sealable plastic containers. If you operate containers, it is a great concept to preserve them on your vehicle.
Do now no longer region your tent close to striking meals or a vehicle in which meals is saved. The scent might also additionally nevertheless appeal to the eye of a endure, and if it does, you need the supply of that meals scent to be a honest distance out of your tent. The cautioned distance is a hundred yards.  If that distance isn’t always viable, make the gap among your tent and your saved meals or your consuming region as massive as viable. Food wrappers, leftovers and grimy dishes also can positioned the heady fragrance of meals withinside the air. Do now no longer preserve them close to your tent.
You have to additionally region your tent in a place in which you’ll have accurate visibility. Avoid putting your tent in heavy brush, as you’ll now no longer be capable of see an drawing close endure.
If you notice a endure withinside the distance virtually again away, at the least some hundred yards, and discover every other direction. If every other direction isn’t always available, wait 20 to half-hour earlier than heading back off the trail. While going back off the trail, make certain to make noise to announce your presence. This will permit the endure to understand which you are coming and now no longer to frighten him into assault mode. It may also supply him sufficient time to transport from your route.
Close Up Encounter
A near come across is whilst you come across a endure near sufficient to get each the endure‘s and your personal coronary heart beating at a speedy pace. Here is in which being capable of become aware of the endure may be very useful – due to the fact your moves can be distinct for every kind of endure.
During a near come across with a black endure whilst you’re taking walks down a trail, you have to prevent, stand your floor, and determine the situation. If the endure does now no longer right away come closer to you, it’s far pleasant to slowly again away whilst preserving an eye fixed at the endure to ensure it isn’t always following you. If a black endure begins offevolved to return back closer to you, make your self as huge as viable and in a stern voice inform it to move away. If the endure keeps to return back at you, use your endure spray whilst he is set 20-30 toes away to discourage it from coming any closer. 
In the case of a near come across on your campsite and you understand it’s far a black endure, attempt to persuade it to leave. Once you understand the endure has a clean get away route in which it may not come across different people, stand tall and study the endure whilst saying “Get out of right here endure” with a stern voice. Keep doing this till the endure leaves.  Don’t scream at it frantically, as this will scare the endure and purpose it to assault. Have endure spray or a robust stay with you in case the endure receives too near. These can be used to discourage the endure from an real assault.
If you’ve got got any near come across with a grizzly endure, recall that they’re an awful lot extra competitive than black bears and extra tough to discourage. Stand nevertheless, preserve your eyes at the endure and watch for its reaction. If the grizzly comes too near for comfort, you could attempt your endure spray to prevent it from making touch with you. If it continues its distance, slowly again farfar from it whilst preserving your eyes at the endure. Remember to by no means flip your again on or run from a endure.
|Sources of Bear Attack Information|
| Brown Bear: Wikipedia article on brown bears.  Characteristics of Black Bears and Grizzly Bears in YNP: Kerry A. Gunther, Information Paper No. BMO-2, January 2006, for Yellowstone National Park.  Be secure in endure habitat: Article from the Get Bear Smart Society.  Avoiding Bear Attack: Article from the National Parks Conservation Association.  Be Bear Aware: Pamphlet with the aid of using the Center For Wildlife Information.  Bear Spray: Safety for People, Safety for Bears: Brochure with the aid of using BeBearAware.org/Center For Wildlife Information, 2009, posted at the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife website.  Understanding the Bear’s Mindset: Article posted at the National Park Service website.  Surviving a endure come across: Pamphlet from Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.|
Attack: Physical Contact
The National Park Service breaks endure assaults into groups: 1) protective assaults and 2) predatory assaults. Learning a way to understand what kind of assault is taking place will assist you to correctly reply to the assault.  Never run from a endure in assault mode, as they’re an awful lot quicker than you. Also, they see your flight reaction as a fleeing animal and could chase you.
Most endure assaults are protective assaults. They are known as protective assaults due to the fact the endure is usually stuck off protect with the aid of using a human presence. With that wonder comes their intuition to guard themselves, their cubs, or their meals. Predatory endure assaults are uncommon for grizzly bears and black bears. Polar bears, on the opposite hand, were acknowledged to music and assault people.
Protecting Yourself in a Defensive Attack
Defensive assaults are the maximum not unusualplace kind of endure assault. There are some matters to search for whilst a endure assault can be a protective assault. Common endure moves in those kinds of assaults include: hop charges, a faux rush closer to you, slapping on the floor, tooth clacking and huffs. This is the endure‘s manner of saying, “I do not know what you’re or what you are doing right here however you aren’t welcome.” Sometimes a endure will stand on its hind legs to get a higher study you and higher scent to decide in case you are a hazard to them. If the endure does now no longer assault after those motions, slowly again away whilst going through the endure. Do now no longer flip your again on or run from a anxious endure. 
If the endure makes bodily touch with you in a protective assault, it’s far pleasant to play useless in an try to defuse the situation. While at the floor both lay flat in your belly together along with your arms interlocked over your neck and unfold your elbows and legs so it’s far more difficult for the endure to roll you over; or, curl up withinside the fetal position, once more together along with your arms interlocked over your neck. 
In a protective assault, a endure does now no longer intend to consume you – it’s far simply looking to remove the hazard. Generally, as soon as the endure believes which you, the hazard, were removed it’ll leave. Continue mendacity at the floor for at the least 20-half-hour to ensure the endure isn’t always lurking round watching. If the assault keeps and also you experience he’s going to by no means leave, combat again with any weapon viable. Use endure spray if you have not already used all of it looking to deter it from the assault. Usually rocks and sticks are the simplest guns available, so ensure to intention for the face. Concentrate on touchy spots just like the nostril and eyes.
Protecting Yourself During a Predatory Attack
In a predatory assault the endure intends to have you ever for dinner. Do some thing is vital now no longer to come to be his subsequent meal. If you’ve got got a gun, use it. If you’ve got got endure spray, use it. If you’ve got got simplest sticks and stones, intention for the maximum touchy regions. These regions could be at the face, focusing totally on the nostril and eyes. In a predatory assault it’s far a remember of existence and death, so do the whole lot viable to store your existence.
Protect Yourself with Knowledge
Knowing what to do to keep away from a endure come across and what to do in case you come to be face-to-face with a endure is the pleasant manner to be secure. We have hyperlinks to extra records approximately bears withinside the reference field in this page.